Sunday, September 17, 2017

DNA Molecule Model

Genetic Molecular Model


Every living creature will reproduce themselves with the similar physical condition and similar behavior between mother and their child. This because there are similar genetic differentiate to their child.

The DNA molecule on our body is part of our cells, this DNA holds the secret of life. DNA store all information in cells of every living organism. On learn of DNA will observe of many materials that every detail will answer of every question such on the below:


Genetic cell structure is differentiate to the children from their parent
Genetic Model
  1. How many traits did Mendel study in pea plants?
  2. What was the name of Mendel’s paper he published and what year did he spend copies of it scientists worldwide?
  3. What organism did Thomas Hunt Morgan study?
  4. What is eugenitics?
  5. Who demonstrated by experimentation in the 1940’s that DNA is the genetic molecules?
  6. Who discovered the three dimensional structure of DNA in 1953?
  7. What is retrovirus?
  8. How do x-rays affect DNA?
  9. What is mitochondrical DNA?
  10. What is an intron?
  11. What are transposons and who discovered them?
  12. What is recombinant DNA?
  13. A liver cell and a nerve cell in your body has the same DNA. Why does the liver cell have different structures and functions than a nerve cell?
  14. What is a homeobox?
  15. When was a rough draft of the human genome project completed?
  16. What percent of life stores information in DNA?

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Laboratory Accreditation

Indonesian Standard Test (SNI) 


In Indonesia for every product which will sell should have Laboratory standardization test or SNI. So every release in the market have this code. Only domestic product like vegetables and tuber crop don't use this standard.

Certified laboratory should have follow to the standard of laboratory that already released by SNI for indonesian standardization. The requirement of standard regulated by SNI otherwise by government regulation.

Special for environment laboratory also regulated by law that should follow, some of requirement will show as on the table below:

Table 1. The General Requirement of Environmental Laboratory Person Qualification
Position Qualification Kind of Training
Highest Position
No qualification
  1. connecting to environmental management
  2. Laboratory quality management system
  3. Health and Safety and laboratory waste management
Quality Manager
D3 minimum with minimum experience 1 year in qulity management system
  1. connecting to environmental management
  2. Internal Laboratory Audit
  3. Laboratory Quality management system
  4. Documentation of Laboratory Quality Management
  5. Health and Safety and laboratory waste management
Technical Manager
D3 minimum in science or technicque with minimum experience 3 years in testing laboratory
  1. Connecting to environment management
  2. Laboratory Quality Management
  3. Taking sample and environment parameter quality testing
  4. Validation method and quality guarantee and environment parameter quality control
  5. uncertainty estimation of environment parameter quality result
  6. Profession test or laboratory comparation testing
  7. maintenance and environment laboratory equipment calibration
  8. health and safety and laboratory waste management
Supervisor
High School minimum, chemical high school or similar level with experience 3 years as analist
  1. Laboratory Quality Management
  2. Taking sample and environment parameter quality testing
  3. Validation method and quality guarantee and environment parameter quality control
  4. uncertainty estimation of environment parameter quality result
  5. Profession test or laboratory comparation testing
  6. maintenance and environment laboratory equipment calibration
  7. health and safety and laboratory waste management
Analist
Minimum High School or Similar Level
  1. Laboratory Quality Management
  2. Taking sample and environment parameter quality testing
  3. health and safety and laboratory waste management

If needed the requirement or test result interpretation, then the requirement as on table 1 will need other requirement as follows:
  1. knowledge of environment relevant technology
  2. knowledge of environment regulation and relevant standard
  3. undestanding of significant deviation found on the test result

North Pole Ozone Almost Hollow

North Pole and South Pole are Changed


The ozone layer continuous to thin, almost hollow in the Arctic Decrease in stratospheric temperature. This condition because of three causes, according to Proff. Ross Salawitch, a chemist and biochemist from Maryland university. These three component are sunlight, halogen and low temperature.


When the temperature drops exceeds the threshold, the cloud formed in the stratosphere. Halogen is pollutant particulate such as chlorine and bromine, this substance then turned into a chemical compound that reacts quickly with ozone. This year the polar wind system (also called as Vortex wind) very calm and stable. It plays a role in lowering the temperature in the Arctic region. This will decline drastically if it occurred at the South pole, could certainly form the ozone hole because ozone layer is thinner than in the Arctic.

Currently the vortex wind vanished and the air outside a warmer Arctic could go in and fix the ozone layer. If the ozone hollow, more ultraviolet radiation will reach to the earth that can trigger skin diseases. Other causes make people's skin more sensitive to sunburn.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Biology Description

What actually Biology study about?


As on my high school we already studied biology is learn about our body organ, the arrangement or location, and working order or function. Also we study about many kind of animals and also animals digestive system. But biology is not just that field, biology is include very wide field about living world.

Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialties may oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. Botany is concerned with plant life, Zoology with animal life, algology with algae, Mycology with fungi, microbiology with microorganisms such as protozoan and bacteria, cytology with cells, and so on.

All biological specialties, however, are concerned with life and characteristics. These characteristics include cellular organization, metabolism, response to stimuli, development and growth, and reproduction. Furthermore, the information needed to control the expression of such characteristics is contained within each organism.

Fundamental Disciplines of Biology


Life is divided into many levels of organization, atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organ systems, organisms, and populations. The basic disciplines of biology may study life at one or more of these levels.

Taxonomy attempt to arrange organisms in natural groups based on common features. It is concerned with the identification, naming, and classification of organisms. The discipline of ecology is concerned with the interrelationships of organism, both among themselves and between them and their environment. Studies of the energy flow through communities of organisms and the environment (the ecosystem approach) are especially valuable in assessing the effects of human activities.

Organisms respond to stimuli from other organisms and from the environment; behaviors are concerned with these responses. Most of them study animals, as individuals, groups, or entire species, in describing animal behavior patterns. These patterns include animal migration, courtship and mating, social organization, territoriality, instinct, and learning. When human are included, biology are overlaps with psychology and sociology. Growth and orientation responses of plant can also be studied in the discipline of behavior, although they are traditionally considered as belonging under development and physiology, respectively.